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Rapid rise in sea level on German Baltic coast



News, Processing Technologies, Water & Waste Water

Already today, a large part of the German Baltic Sea coast is being eroded by the force of the sea. In recent years, high storm surges have also caused major damage. This may be exacerbated by sea-level rise. Therefore, coastal communities need to develop concepts in time to ensure their long-term development. As a basis for this planning, a brochure has now been produced as part of the Coastal Sea Research Network North Sea-Baltic Sea (KüNO III), which provides an introduction to the subject. It is edited by Dr. Insa Meinke, head of the North German Coastal and Climate Office at the Helmholtz Center Hereon, a partner in the KüNO research network.

On the German Baltic coast, sea levels have already risen significantly and measurably over the past century. Storm surges have caused damage in many places in recent years. Waves, surf and currents are continuously shifting the German Baltic coast backwards. Their communities must protect themselves from both flooding and coastal recession.

Without ambitious adaptation efforts, erosion, land loss and flooding will increase significantly worldwide in the future, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This also applies to the German Baltic Sea coast, as previous hydraulic engineering measures may sooner or later become less effective due to climate change.

Protective measures in transition

Fixed structures such as dikes and barrages provide reliable protection against flooding up to a defined storm surge height. However, it is possible that sea-level rise will accelerate significantly in the next few decades. At the very least, it will continue for centuries. Therefore, it is foreseeable that without adaptation, current protection will be less effective in the future. Although permanently installed structures also initially prevent coastal recession, sediment is increasingly eroded in front of such structures. As a result, the seabed deepens and the waves hit the coast unchecked. This puts an increasing strain on the protective structures.

Natural measures

Sand flushing is considered the most efficient method of counteracting coastal recession. However, there is already not enough sediment available to flush everywhere where it would be necessary. Cliffs are the most important natural sediment suppliers and, according to coastal protection plans, should only be protected in exceptional cases so that the sediment supply to neighboring coasts is not cut off. Sooner or later, however, coastal recession will have progressed to the point where residential areas or important infrastructure will need to be protected.

Another option is to reestablish seagrass beds. They attenuate wave energy. Thus, erosion rates are reduced and sediment deposition is favored. Heat waves, which occur more frequently due to climate change, are problematic here. They can strongly affect the expansion of seagrass meadows. In this context, the KüNO project SeaStore is investigating which factors favor the reestablishment of seagrass on the German Baltic Sea coast.

Exploring possibilities

“All measures have their limits, which can be reached more quickly due to climate change,” says Insa Meinke. It is becoming apparent that spatial planning adaptation measures will also be necessary to respond to rising water levels in the long term. Overall, it is important to weigh up options locally, but also across political-administrative boundaries, to make necessary decisions with the involvement of affected stakeholders and to initiate appropriate measures. In the KüNO project ECAS-Baltic, coastal protection and adaptation strategies are also being investigated with regard to acceptance by the population.

News Processing Technologies

Reduced CO2 emissions through “Green Car Policy”



Responsible and sustainable action is firmly anchored in the WAGO Group’s corporate strategy. The company’s connection and automation technology is an important component of the infrastructure necessary to advance digitalization and energy efficiency, and thus contribute to global challenges such as decarbonization. The company wants to fulfill this responsibility together with customers and partners, but also within the company. Therefore, we have decided to consistently convert our vehicle fleet to alternative drives.

With a “Green Car Policy”, no pure gasoline or diesel engines will be permitted in the future. The medium-term goal is to purchase only zero-emission vehicles by 2025. By the end of this year, plug-in hybrids and electric cars will already account for 40% of the total fleet. The company’s pool vehicles, which are available for business trips at the German plants in Minden and Sonderhausen (Thuringia), will already be 80% electrified. In perspective, further concepts for sustainable mobility are to be incorporated into the policy.

“The consistent conversion of our vehicle fleet is a further step for us to make the energy transition possible together. If you want to act sustainably in the long term, you have to look at all aspects of your business. Here we can make a further contribution to saving CO2 for our company and achieve results quickly.”

– Axel Börner, Chief Financial Officer

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News Pharmaceuticals Processing Technologies

Innovative tooth brushing robot



In principle, teeth and gums can also be perfectly cared for with a normal toothbrush. However, dentists repeatedly find that most people find it easier to achieve good results with electric assistance, and are therefore increasingly advising electric brushes. TÜV SÜD product expert Andrea Mertl explains what consumers should look out for and how products are tested on the German market.

The figures speak for themselves: three quarters of all dentists in Germany are convinced that correct brushing is easier with an electric toothbrush; one in three even believes they can tell from their patients’ dentition whether they are using an electric brush or not. Today, around 40 percent of all people over the age of 14 in this country already use an electric toothbrush. Since this brushing method has long been taken for granted even by more and more kindergarten children, the market share will continue to grow significantly in the coming years. In addition, many electric fans from the very beginning are switching to new models. Here, it is not only product improvements in terms of program selection or battery charging capacities that are enticing – those who still use a retro model with an electric cord or battery operation should switch for safety or environmental reasons. New features such as a smartphone app that documents cleaning time and quality or recognizes which areas are being neglected via a connection to the camera also encourage new purchases.

Andrea Mertl is responsible for testing electric toothbrushes at TÜV SÜD: “Many manufacturers advertise that their products provide good brushing performance. With our tests, we check this on the basis of various aspects and ensure that the electric toothbrushes also clean gently, are user-friendly to use and comply with the specifications regarding safety and environmental protection.”

Innovative toothbrushing robot

An extensive test scenario has been defined for these reviews. A specially developed brushing robot has already been in use since 2017, simulating brushing performance on black-colored artificial dentures. A white paste represents plaque and impurities to be removed from the tested models. How well this is achieved is analyzed by software, which assigns scores for the criteria of interdental spaces, tooth necks, smooth surfaces and overall surface area during its evaluation. After these automated tests and, of course, a thorough safety check in which, for example, the cord and charging station are also closely examined, human test subjects of all ages come into play. They test several products from different manufacturers with different product features and from different price ranges. Only after this elaborate procedure does the company award its test seal.

Rotary model or sonic toothbrush

Basically, electric toothbrushes are based on two different technologies. Rotary models and sonic toothbrushes are still on the market, and within these groups there are of course differences in terms of functionality. Very good results can be achieved with both variants: Rotary brushes have a small, rotating round brush head that works on each tooth individually. The brushes brush with an alternating left-right movement – a semi-circular rotation of the brush head.

Sonic toothbrushes usually have larger, oval brush heads and clean a larger area at once. Nevertheless, the brushes do not clean with sound, but with vibrations that occur at a very high frequency. Meanwhile, the integrated transducers generate sound waves between 250 and 300 hertz that drive the brush head. This creates a buzzing sound, which originally gave this type of toothbrush its name. Since less pressure is required with this system, gentle cleaning is even easier and interdental spaces are also better reached, more and more users are giving preference to sonic brushes.

Special form of sonic brush: ultrasonic toothbrushes

Still relatively new on the market are ultrasonic toothbrushes, which use a special toothpaste and send tiny microbubbles into the deepest crevices of the teeth at up to 96 million vibrations per minute to loosen plaque and bacteria. While the results achieved are excellent, optimal cleaning takes significantly longer than with other systems. Moreover, at the moment this technology is still exclusively represented in the upper price segment and is mainly recommended for people with gum problems, braces or bridges.

“Whether a toothbrush with smartphone connectivity is really necessary is up to each buyer to decide. However, our experience shows that electric toothbrushes generally make good oral hygiene much easier. In any case, we advise to go for tested safety and to pay attention to the corresponding labeling when buying.”  

– Andrea Mertl

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News Processing Technologies Quality Management

More space in the control cabinet thanks to compact controller family



Now B&R is launching a new compact controller family called X20 Embedded. The devices combine performance and numerous integrated interfaces in a housing just 55 mm wide. This makes the controllers half the size of comparable devices.

Thanks to the powerful processors from the Intel Atom series, the new controllers are also suitable for demanding applications with short cycle times. The devices can even be used to control fully-fledged robot applications. Machine builders thus save costs and space in the control cabinet.

The controllers come standard with two USB ports, integrated flash memory and two Ethernet ports. Daisy-chain cabling can be easily implemented with the integrated switch. Therefore, there are no additional costs for the network infrastructure.

Integrated interfaces

Hardware interfaces for POWERLINK and RS485 are also integrated in the devices. Via the RS485 interface, the user can, for example, connect frequency converters directly to the controller without any additional hardware. The power supply is also integrated. Despite the high performance, the controllers do not require a fan or battery and are therefore maintenance-free.

Optionally, any other fieldbus protocols can be added. For this purpose, the controllers are optionally available with an interface slot. All B&R interface cards can be combined with devices from the X20 embedded series. Likewise, all X20 I/O modules can be added to the controller as usual. 

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