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In step with climate change: the deep sea



News, Processing Technologies, Water & Waste Water

Led by Dr. Karl-Michael Werner of the Thünen Institute of Sea Fisheries and Margrete Emblemsvåg of the Møreforsking AS Institute and the Arctic University of Norway, an international research team has discovered an unusual link between bottomfish communities in East Greenland and the effects of climate change. Evaluating long time series, they observed that ecosystems across the entire depth range of 150 to1500 meters of water depth responded simultaneously to changes in the atmosphere, sea ice cover, and surface temperature – surprisingly, most clearly in deep-sea fishes living below 400 meters of water depth.

Over nearly 20 years, from 1998-2016, researchers from the Thünen Institute of Sea Fisheries in Bremerhaven and the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources in Nuuk collected data on changes in the fish community at depths from 150 to 1500 meters. During this period, they sailed research vessels to similar locations off East Greenland each year to take samples with a scientific bottom trawl. This brought together information from nearly 1400 net catches.

“As we analyzed the fish abundance data, we realized that the changes in depth regions between 350 and 1000 meters were greater than the changes in shallower regions. When it was also statistically confirmed that these observations at depth correlated with changes in the atmosphere, the biggest challenge was to develop hypotheses about how these things were related.”

– Margrete Emblemsvåg

Ecological changes at depth

For their data analysis, the scientists used the statistical evaluation method “tensor decomposition,” which allowed them to examine spatial and temporal changes in fish communities simultaneously. “This method has not been used for ecological questions for long, but it was recently recognized that it is very well suited for analyzing spatiotemporal processes in fish communities,” explains Karl-Michael Werner of the Thünen Institute. “The most striking result was that the changes occurred at much greater depths than expected.” For example, even at depths of more than 400 meters, the researchers observed an increase in boreal species, i.e. species more adapted to warmth, such as tusk (Brosme brosme) and blue ling (Molva dypterygia), while the occurrence of Arctic and sub-Arctic species such as Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) and blue wolffish (Anarhichas denticulatus) decreased.

Slow change and extreme events

Tensor decomposition results showed that the distribution of fish communities at greater depths changed rapidly between the years 2005 and 2010. At the same time, both air temperature and surface layer salinity increased and sea ice extent decreased. However, the results also showed short-term changes in deep-sea fish communities in parallel with extreme environmental events, such as in 2003 when air temperature was exceptionally high. Fish communities in the deep sea thus appear to be sensitive to both slow changes and extreme events that lead to changes in ecological conditions within a very short time.

An elevator to the deep?

Since statistical analyses clearly demonstrate that bottom fish distributions are related to changes in the atmosphere and surface, it stands to reason that these physical changes create a biological cascade that extends from the surface to the deep sea. Something similar was observed at the same time in other areas of the North Atlantic. “Changes at the surface can affect sinking rates of organic material, including dying plankton, to the deep within weeks and months. This sinking biomass is an important food base for the seafloor species community on which fish feed,” explains Karl-Michael Werner.

The second hypothesis as to why species on the continental slope showed greater changes than in the shallower water layers could be due to the distribution of different water bodies. An earlier study by author Margrete Emblemsvåg showed that deeper layers, where water masses of Atlantic origin dominate, warmed slowly over the study period, while this was not the case in Arctic water bodies in the shallows. This gradual increase in temperature at depth may be the clock for the fundamental changes in fish distributions, while the extreme events are more likely responsible for the temporal swings in fish fauna via short-term changes in seafloor food availability. Clarification of these questions is the subject of further investigation.



Recycling technology to increase value of recycled aseptic cartons in Brazil



SIG today announces a BRL 10 million investment in innovative recycling technology that will enable polymers and aluminium from used aseptic carton packs to be recovered and sold separately for the first time on an industrial scale in Brazil. By expanding the range of applications for recycled materials from used aseptic cartons, SIG expects to increase their value by more than 50 percent.

“We are excited to bring to Brazil a new technology that will enable separation of aluminium and polyethylene layers from carton packs, thereby expanding the market for these materials and generating more value from the separated waste,” says Ricardo Rodriguez, President and General Manager for SIG Americas. “This project is the latest in a series of innovative collaborations led by SIG to boost collection and recycling rates for used aseptic cartons and grow the recycling chain in a sustainable way.”


Innovative recycling technology

The renewable paper board that makes up around 75 percent of aseptic carton packs on average can be separated for recycling in paper mills through Brazil’s existing recycling infrastructure. The polyethylene and aluminium mix (polyaluminium or PolyAl) left over from this process can be recycled into a robust material for purposes such as roofing, pallets and furniture.

SIG’s recycling plant will use innovative technology that makes it possible to separate the polyethylene from the aluminium in PolyAl to create a wider market and demand for these recycled materials. Developed over five years with project partner ECS Consulting, the new technology has already undergone a pilot project that proved the effectiveness of the chemical recycling process.

The new recycling plant is currently in construction in the state of Paraná. It is expected to begin operating in 2024 with an initial production capacity of 200 tonnes per month. Together with industry partners, SIG has also invested in a plant in Germany to separate polymers and aluminium from PolyAl that went into production in 2021.


Ethical collection programmes

Investing in new technology to create a wider market for recycled materials is an important step in increasing recycling rates for used aseptic cartons. SIG has already led the way with innovative programmes to support two other important steps: collection of used packaging from consumers and separation of that packaging to go into the right recycling streams.

SIG’s so+ma vantagens programme, run in partnership with NGO so+ma since 2018, enables people in underprivileged communities to collect loyalty points for bringing in waste for recycling. The points can then be exchanged for rewards, such as essential food products and skills training. SIG is now expanding this model to promote recycling and bring additional societal benefits to further municipalities in Brazil and beyond.

SIG also promotes public policies for selective waste collection in Brazil, and supports effective infrastructure and decent working conditions for waste collectors’ cooperatives as a seed investor in the Recicleiros Cidades programme. Set up with NGO Recicleiros in 2018, the programme is now operational in 13 municipalities and aims to reach 60 by 2027.

The focus on recycling in Brazil is part of SIG’s global Way Beyond Good commitment to enhance the positive environmental and social impact of its packs throughout their lifecycle.

“At SIG, we are committed to sourcing the materials that go into our packs sustainably. We are already the first aseptic carton producer to source 100 percent FSCTM-certified board and use ASI-certified aluminium,” says Isabela De Marchi, Sustainability Manager for SIG South America. “We are also determined to foster an ethical recycling chain that promotes collection and recycling of our packs after use in a way that supports communities, workers and the environment. The new recycling plant in Paraná takes us a step further on this journey by maximising the retained economic and environmental value of the materials recovered from aseptic cartons.”


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Use of renewable energy



The construction of a vast solar installation at SIG’s production site in Linnich, Germany, will see SIG further extend its lead in the beverage carton industry in the use of renewable energy. The 10.25MWp system, made up of 22,300 photovoltaic solar panels, will be the largest photovoltaic system at an SIG plant to date.

“The thousands of solar panels we are installing in Linnich will double our on-site renewable energy capacity in Germany,” said Arnold Schuhwerk, Head of Category Polymers & Energy Global at SIG. “This latest investment shows that SIG is not only committed to continue making its beverage cartons with 100 percent renewable energy, but to continually improve the quality of that renewable energy through physical power purchase agreements.”


Maximising on-site capacity

SIG is already the first and only aseptic carton manufacturer to produce all its packs with 100 percent renewable energy globally since 2018.

The company recently secured physical power purchase agreements that will provide enough renewable energy capacity to power 100 percent of its carton packaging production in Germany from January 2023 – and the Linnich installation will enable more of this to come from its own sites.

Construction has begun on a gigantic ground-standing system of 20,600 panels that will occupy an 80,000 squarer meters area in front of the Linnich plant – that’s the equivalent of 11 soccer fields side by side. A further 1,700 panels will cover the plant’s rooftop to maximise potential to solar power on the site.

As the owner and operator of the Linnich photovoltaic system, Leipziger Stadtwerke will pass on the solar power generated directly to SIG through a long-term power purchase agreement. The power will go straight into the production of SIG carton packs at the site.

“Leipziger Stadtwerke is driving forward the expansion of renewable energies, including working with partners like SIG. The solar installation at the SIG plant in Linnich is another milestone towards the decarbonising of energy systems in Germany,” says Maik Piehler, Managing Director of Leipziger Stadtwerke. “We are pleased to be able to make an important contribution to this. The project is one of the largest photovoltaic self-supply systems with direct connection in Germany that is operated without using the public grid and without any subsidies on industrial land.”


Going Way Beyond Good for climate

SIG already doubled its on-site solar capacity in 2021 to 11.3MWp and plans to triple this again within the next year. The Linnich system will play a big part in this expansion, together with installations in development at other SIG plants in Germany, Saudi Arabia and Mexico.


The company’s focus on renewable energy is part of SIG’s Way Beyond Good Climate+ ambition that is driving down value chain carbon emissions for its business and its customers.

Use of renewable energy for carton packaging production has already avoided over half a million tonnes of CO2-equivalent and these savings will continue to grow. The new Linnich installation alone will generate enough renewable electricity to reduce more than 3,150 tonnes of carbon emissions a year.


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Commitment to sustainability



EcoVadis, the world’s largest provider of corporate sustainability ratings, has presented Bilfinger SE with a Gold Award for sustainable, ethical and responsible business practices. The Group is thus among the top 5 percent of companies from the more than 100,000 throughout the world that EcoVadis analyzed.

“We are truly proud to receive this award. The results clearly show that the sustainability principle is firmly established in our Group structure and that it is actively embraced by our employees. At the same time, we see the award as an incentive for our future performance”, says Bilfinger Group CEO Thomas Schulz. “The impartial recognition from EcoVadis also serves as confirmation for our process industry customers that with Bilfinger they have a responsible and trustworthy partner at their side ready to help them successfully implement their own sustainability goals.”

The EcoVadis evaluation is based on a comprehensive catalog of questions in which the results of the criteria surveyed are grouped into the four topic areas including environment, labor & human rights, ethics and sustainable procurement. In the most recent survey, Bilfinger improved in both the environment category (from 70 to 80 points), in the labor & human rights category (from 60 to 70 points) and in the sustainable procurement category (from 40 to 50 points). In the ethics category, the same figure as in the previous year (60 points) was achieved. Overall, Bilfinger achieved a score of 68 from a possible 100 points in the annual survey conducted by EcoVadis. The industrial services provider thus surpassed its results from the previous year’s survey by eight points.

Bilfinger has been reporting on its sustainability activities on an annual basis since 2011 and has published an externally-audited non-financial report every year since 2018. In accordance with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol and as part of its current Annual Report, the Group has also formulated specific targets for its own carbon footprint in the form of a so-called “Sustainability Commitment”. This commitment calls for CO2 equivalents under Scope 1 and 2 to be successively reduced from around 60,000 metric tons in 2021 to ‘net zero’ by the end of 2030 at the latest.

Bilfinger is also increasingly providing its customers with valuable support to help them achieve their own sustainability goals. The Group’s customers face the challenge of securing their energy supply for the future and significantly reducing their carbon footprint. As a key component of the company’s growth strategy, Bilfinger targets an increase in revenues from energy transition and carbon reduction projects from approximately €500 million in 2021 to around €1 billion by 2024.


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